Science Day Awards
Kalam Innovation in Governance Award 2019
- The Vice President M Venkaiah Naidu presented Kalam Innovation in Governance Award 2019 at the third edition of Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Summit on Innovation and Governance, in New Delhi.
- On this occasion, the Vice President also started 75 new Kalam Digital Libraries that are aimed at serving as centers for no-cost digital-based learning in schools and children observatories across India.
- The Kalam Summit on Innovation and Governance is organized by the Kalam Centre to feature discussions and studies on various national and global examples of transformational governance for the betterment of the people.
- The Vice President also started 75 new Kalam Digital Libraries spread across the country. These special libraries will be serving as centres for no-cost digital-based learning in schools.
Prime Minister confers Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prizes
The Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize is among the most sought after multidisciplinary awards in the fields of science and technology in the country, given by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) since 1958 in the name of its first . Some of India’s top scientists, like M S Swaminathan and C N R Rao have been recipients of this award in the past.
Given out in seven disciplines – Biological, Engineering, Medical, Chemical, Physical, Mathematical, as well as Earth, Atmosphere, Ocean and Plenary Sciences – the awards were given out on February 28, the National Science Day, which marks the 1928 discovery of the Raman Effect by India’s first Nobel Laureate in science, CV Raman.
In four of the seven categories, the winners were awarded a cash prize and a plaque by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. The awards were presented for the years 2016, 2017, and 2018, with a total of 34 winners. A skewed gender-ratio was clearly visible – there was only one one woman among the awardees.
Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar -“The Father of Science and Technology in India”
- Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar was born on 21 February 1894 at Bhera, in the district of Shapur in Punjab, Pakistan.
- When he was barely eight months old, his father passed away.
- He spent his next thirteen years under the care of his maternal grandfather in Bulandshahar in Uttar Pradesh.
- Under the influence of his grandfather, young Bhatnagar not only developed a taste for engineering and science but also became interested at a very early age in geometry and algebra and in making mechanical toys.
- In 1911, Shanti published a letter to the editor, in The Leader, Allahabad, on how to make a substitute for carbonelectrodes in a battery using molasses and carbonaceous matter under pressure and heat.
- Matriculating the same year, Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar joined the Dayal Singh College, Lahore.
- After finishing his intermediate examination in first division, Shanti joined the Forman Christian College.
- After his B.Sc and M.Sc degrees, he spent the next two years at the University of London earning his D.Sc. degree. He worked on the surface tension of oils, under the supervision of Professor F.G. Donnan.
- Returning to India in 1921, he joined the Benares Hindu University as a Professor, remaining there till 1924.
- From 1924 to 1940 he served as the Director of the University Chemical Laboratories, Lahore, addressing problems in industrial and applied chemistry.
- In August 1940, Bhatnagar took over as the Director of the newly created Directorate of Scientific and Industrial Research.
- This organisation became the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, with Bhatnagar as its Director.
- Bhatnagar’s tenure saw the setting up of 12 laboratories and the total number of CSIR laboratories today stands at 40.
Award and Legacy
- The British Government conferred on him the Order of the British Empire.
- In 1941, he was made the Knight Bachelor.
- In 1943 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.
- He received the Padma Vibhushan (1954) from the Government of India.
- Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar played a significant part along with Homi Bhabha, Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis, Vikram Sarabhai and others in building of post-independence Science & Technology infrastructure.
- He formulated of India’s science policies after Independence.
National Science Day: A Day To Celebrate Scientist CV Raman’s Discovery
Theme of National Science Day 2019 is “Science for people and people for science.” The day marks important discovery made by scientist CV Raman – the Raman Effect.
National Science Day is celebrated across India on February 28. Famous Indian scientist Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman or CV Raman discovered the Raman Effect on this day in 1928. For his discovery, Sir CV Raman was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930. In honour of this discovery and as a mark of tribute to the scientist, National Science Day was marked for the first time on February 28, 1987.
Know About Raman Effect:
Raman effect is the inelastic scattering of a photon by molecules which are excited to higher vibrational or rotational energy levels. It is also called Raman scattering. The Raman effect forms the basis for Raman spectroscopy which is used by chemists and physicists to gain information about materials.
NATIONAL TECHNOLOGY DAY 2019
National Technology Day, 2019 will be celebrated in India on 11th of May.
About “Shakti, the Pokhran Nuclear Test”
The first nuclear test Pokhran-I with a code named as ‘Smiling Buddha’ was carried out in May, 1974. The second test conducted was Pokhran II which was a series of five tests of nuclear bomb explosions, administered by India at the Pokhran Test Range of Indian Army in May, 1998. Pokhran II comprised of five detonations out of which the first one was a fusion bomb while the other four were fission bombs. These nuclear tests evolved various sanctions against India by many major states, including United States and Japan.
Pokran II or Operation Shakti was initiated on 11th of May, 1998 with the detonation of two fission bombs and one fusion bomb (meaning of the word “Shakti” is power in Sanskrit). Two additional fission bombs were detonated on 13th of May, 1998 and the Government of India run by Atal Bihari Vajpayee, the then Prime Minister shortly convened a press conference for the declaration of India as a full-fledged nuclear state. Various names were attributed for these tests with the original name kept as ‘’Operation Shakti-98”, while the five nuclear devices were classified Shakti I through Shakti V. Recently, the whole operation is called Pokhran II and the explosion of 1974 is called Pokhran I.