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Investigation Agency - Shanmugam IAS academy in coimbatore
Investigation Agency


What’s in news?

The National Investigation Agency (NIA) has arrested a person in connection with a terror funding case linked to the Naga insurgent group NSCN (IM). 

Key data’s:

  • The arrested person was actively involved in the transfer/mobilisation of the terror funds for NSCN (IM).
  • He was produced before the NIA Special Court, New Delhi and taken in police custody for further investigation.

National Investigation Agency:

  • The National Investigation Agency (NIA) was constituted under the National Investigation Agency (NIA) Act, 2008.
  • Headquarters: New Delhi
  • Branches: Hyderabad, Guwahati, Kochi, Lucknow, Mumbai, Kolkata, Raipur and Jammu.
  • It is a central agency to investigate and prosecute offences:
    • affecting the sovereignty, security and integrity of India, security of State, friendly relations with foreign States.
    • against atomic and nuclear facilities.
    • smuggling in High-Quality Counterfeit Indian Currency.
  • It implements international treaties, agreements, conventions and resolutions of the United Nations, its agencies and other international organisations.
  • It’s objective is also to combat terror in India.
  • It acts as the Central Counter-Terrorism Law Enforcement Agency.

Need of NIA:

  • The terrorist incidents are found to have complex inter-State and international linkages, and possible connection with organised crime, for example, the smuggling of arms and drugs, circulation of fake Indian currency etc.
  • The agency at the Central level was created for investigation of offences related to terrorism and certain other Act post-2008 Mumbai terror attacks.

Mandate of NIA:

  • The cases are assigned to the NIA by the Central Government in accordance with section VI of the NIA Act, 2008.
  • The investigation of the cases is done by the Agency independently.
  • After investigation, the cases are placed before the NIA Special Court.
  • For prosecuting the accused under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967 (UAPA) and certain other scheduled offences, the Agency seeks the sanction of the Central Government.
  • The sanction is granted under the UAPA based on the report of the ‘Authority’ constituted under section 45 (2) of the UAPA.
  • It is empowered to deal with terror-related crimes across states without special permission from the states.

Smuggling and Terror Funding:

  • The amendments to the NIA Act has brought the offences related to the smuggling in High-Quality Counterfeit Indian Currency under the definition of a terrorist Act.
  • To curb various aspects of terrorist financing, a Terror Funding and Fake Currency Cell (TFFC) has been created in the NIA.
  • The Cell maintains a database of terror financing and cases of Fake Indian Currency Notes (FICN).
  • TFFC also conducts a part investigation into terror financing aspects of regular cases investigated by the NIA.
  • TFFC Cell conducts verifications of bank accounts of the suspects that are linked with Naxalite groups.
  • There is an exclusive Left-Wing Extremism (LWE) cell to effectively deal with cases related to terror financing aspects of Naxalite groups.
  • The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) reviews the manpower, financial and infrastructure requirements of NIA from time to time.

Recent Amendment:

  • The NIA (Amendment) Bill, 2019 was passed by Parliament amending the original Act of 2008.
  • The Bill seeks to allow the NIA to investigate the following additional offences:
    • Human trafficking
    • Offences related to counterfeit currency or banknotes
    • Manufacture or sale of prohibited arms
    • Cyber-terrorism, and
    • Offences under the Explosive Substances Act, 1908

Scheduled Offences:

  • The schedule to the Act specifies a list of offences which are to be investigated and prosecuted by the NIA.
  • These include offences under Acts such as the Atomic Energy Act, 1962, and the Unlawful Activities Prevention Act, 1967.

Links to note:

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