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Goitre - Shanmugam IAS academy in coimbatore - UPSC


What’s in news?

India and Russia signed a 14 MoUs between Indian and Russian companies.

Key data’s:

  • In the 5th India Russia military industry conference held during the Defexpo 2020 in Lucknow, 14 MoUs were signed between Indian and Russian companies.
  • Much of Indian military equipment is sourced from Russia. There is a lack of timely spares and support for such equipment. The MoU will address the issue of regular spares and support for Russian military equipment which are currently being used by the armed forces in India.
  • It will cover joint ventures covering a range of equipment from modern T-90 tanks to legacy Pechora air defence systems (surface-to-air missile system).
  • Under the proposed Indo-Russian Joint Venture ICT Center of Excellence, there are also agreements on emerging technologies like Artificial Intelligence, Internet of Things, blockchain and robotics based on Russian technologies.
  • One important MoU was signed between the Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) and the Almaz Antey of Russia for exploring the feasibility of establishing a joint venture in India for the production of various subsystems of “air defence missile systems like Tunguska, Kavadrat, the OSA-AKA, Pechora air defence system as well as the Shilka self-propelled air defence gun system”.
  • The MoU also covered refurbishment and life extension of the missiles.



What’s in news?

Doctors remove large thyroid growths from Melghat tribals of Maharashtra.

Key data’s:

  • Thyroid gland: The thyroid gland is an endocrine gland in your neck.
  • Location: The gland is located near your larynx (voice box) and in front of the trachea (windpipe).
  • Hormones: The gland secreted two hormones which is essential of normal functioning of body cells. The hormones are thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).
  • Thyroid nodules: It is a lump that can develop in your thyroid gland – can be solid or filled with fluid.


  • It is an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland.
  • Cause: The common cause of goitre is ‘Iodine deficiency’ in the diet. Also, over or under use of iodine will cause such problem.
  • Symptoms: A swelling at the base of your neck that may be particularly obvious when you shave or put on makeup, A tight feeling in your throat, Coughing, Hoarseness, Difficulty swallowing, Difficulty breathing.

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