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Diplomatic Communication


What’s in the news?

  • Recently, India raised an allegation with Pakistan regarding the forceful conversion of 2 minor Hindu girls to Islam in the Sindh province.
  • A report says, every month some 10-15 persons are being converted into Islam forcefully. PM Imran Khan, formed a committee to inquire this issue.

Diplomatic communication:

  • India raised this issue in the form of “Note verbale”, a form of diplomatic communication.
  • There are 4 different forms of diplomatic communication. They are;

Note Verbale à

  • Derived from a French word, literally means a verbal note.
  • It is a common method of oral communication to the recipient i.e communication done between two governments thro’ each other’s diplomatic representatives. This form is used to convey information / request of all kinds.

Demarche à

  • It’s a more formal type of communication of one government’s official position, views, or wishes on a given subject to an appropriate official in another government.
  • This form of communication seeks to persuade, inform, or gather information from a foreign government.
  • Governments may also use a demarche to protest or object to actions by a foreign government.

Demi Official (DO) à

  • It is first person communication that begins with a “Dear…” and is signed by the writer, usually a high representative of the sending entity.
  • DOs are used only when the addressee and the representative know each other extremely well and occupy high office.

Non-papers and aide-memoires à

  • This is less common form of communication, which are summaries of discussions between two countries

Other major issues between India and Pakistan:

SECURITY: New Delhi broke off talks with Pakistan following the 2008 Mumbai attacks and had refused to resume dialogue, saying Pakistan had to take more action against Pakistan-based militant groups.

AFGHANISTAN: Afghanistan is a major source of friction. The two countries have long competed for influence there and Pakistan is deeply suspicious of a rise in India’s presence after the fall of the Islamabad-backed Taliban government in 2001.

KASHMIR: The divided, mostly Muslim Himalayan region of Kashmir is at the heart of hostility between the neighbors and was the cause of two of their three wars since independence from Britain in 1947. The third was over the founding of Bangladesh.

WATER: The two countries disagree over use of the water flowing down rivers that rise in Indian Kashmir and run into the Indus river basin in Pakistan. The use of the water is governed by the 1960 Indus Water Treaty under which India was granted the use of water from three eastern rivers, and Pakistan the use of three western rivers.

SIACHEN: Indian and Pakistani forces have faced off against each other in mountains above the Siachen glacier in the Karakoram range, the world’s highest battlefield, since 1984.


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