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Canine distemper - Shanmugam IAS academy in coimbatore
Canine distemper

CANINE DISTEMPER

What’s in news?

Along with the few threats, a potential virus — Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) — that can be transmitted from CDV-infected dogs living in and around wildlife sanctuaries has started to raise concern among wildlife biologists.

Key data’s:

  • A recent study note that, 86% of the tested dogs around Ranthambhore National Park in Rajasthan carried CDV antibodies in their bloodstream.
  • This means that the dogs are either currently infected or have been infected sometime in their life and have overcome the disease.
  • This finding points out that there is an increased risk of disease transfer from the dogs to tigers and leopards that live in the park.
  • A study was published in “Threatened Tax”.
  • The study was done from July to August 2015 when the team visited villages (in a 4 km radius) around the Ranthambhore National Park and collected blood samples from over 100 dogs.
  • The main aim should be to vaccinate the free-ranging and domestic dogs in the area around national parks.
  • A lot of NGOs have started animal birth control programmes. They need more support from the government.

Previous issue:

  • Last year, over 20 lions from the Gir forest succumbed to the viral infection and now a guideline has been prepared by the National Tiger Conservation Authority to prevent the spillover of the disease to wild animals.
  • In 1994, the Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) was responsible for an epidemic in the Serengetti region of Africa, where 1,000 lions died in 3 weeks.

CDV:

  • Canine distemper is a contagious viral diseasethat attacks the respiratory, gastrointestinal and nervous systems of a wide variety of animal species, including dogs, coyotes, foxes, pandas and wolves
  • Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) or also known as hardpad disease is a viral disease that infects the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.

The following are the ways of spreading the disease;

  • Dogs who have not been vaccinated for Canine Distemper are the most at-risk. While the disease can also be contracted when improperly vaccinated or when a dog has high susceptibility to bacterial infection, these cases are rare.
  • CDV can be spread through direct contact (licking, breathing air, etc.) or indirect contact (bedding, toys, food bowls, etc.), though it cannot live on surfaces for very long. Inhaling the virus is the primary method of exposure. There is no known cure for CDV.
  • Symptoms: Common symptoms include high fever, eye inflammation and eye/nose discharge, vomiting and diarrhoea, loss of appetite and lethargy, and hardening of nose and footpads.
  • Diagnosis: There is no cure for canine distemper infection. Treatment typically consists of supportive care and efforts to prevent infections.

 

Links to note:

https://www.iasipstnpsc.in/canine-distemper-virus-cdv/

https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/tigers-in-india-face-lurking-threat-from-virus/article28808001.ece

https://www.downtoearth.org.in/blog/wildlife-biodiversity/run-up-to-world-tiger-day-can-india-become-a-tiger-utopia–65874

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