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Bird population - Shanmugam IAS academy in coimbatore
Bird population

DECLINING BIRD POPULATION

What’s in news?

The bird population of the Indian country faces a declining trend.

Key data’s:

  • Report: During the UN-backed 13th Conference of Parties (COP) of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, a report State of India’s Bird 2020 was released.
  • Location: The COP was held at Gandhinagar, Gujarat.
  • Surveyed by: The survey was conducted by;
    • Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS)
    • Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) 
  • Report’s message: The report shows that over a period of 25 years, 80% of common birds were declined drastically – 90% decline in population size and distribution range over the past five decades.
  • Coverage: Almost the report covers 867 Indian bird species using a database contributed by at least 15,500 birdwatchers from across the country and has used “citizen science data” to assess distribution and trends.

Findings of the report:

The following are the findings given in the report;

  • Out of 101 Birds at high conservation status doing good – 48% of the species remained stable or facing increasing trend in the long term in the last five years.
  • Common species need conservation attention as they are declining sharply.
  • Out of 261 species, (species taken over last five years of period)
    • Since 2000, 52% have declined and 22% shows a strong decline.
  • Species which shows greatest decline raptors, migratory shorebirds, White-rumped Vulture, Richard’s Pipit, Indian Vulture, Large-billed Leaf Warbler, Pacific Golden Plover and Curlew Sandpiper.
  • Species which shows increasing trend – Rosy Starling, Feral Pigeon, Glossy Ibis, Plain Prinia and Ashy Prinia.
  • Out of 146 species, (taken in the current trend)
    • 80% of species shows a declining trend
    • 50% of species dipped strongly
    • 6% of species are stable
    • 14% of species were increasing
  • National Bird: Indian Peafowl/Peacock, have increased dramatically over the last few decades – they spread across the plains and hills of India, except in extremely dry or wet regions. The increasing trend of Peafowl indicates the extension of its habitat.
  • Vultures: Indian vultures facing a declining population since 1990s – due to consuming the anti-inflammatory drug called diclofenac.
  • Among the vultures, the vulture which showed a high decline is White-rumped Vulture. Followed by the Indian Vulture and Egyptian Vulture.
  • Indian Bustard: The four species of bustards {the Great Indian Bustard, Macqueen’s Bustard, Lesser Florican and Bengal Florican} recorded a population decline due to hunting, habitat loss, its slow growth and reproduction.
  • Declining in cities: The data from the six mega cities – Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Kolkata and Mumbai – shows a major gradual decline in House Sparrows abundance in urban centres.

Links to note:

https://www.iasipstnpsc.in/37-endangered-vultures-died/

https://indianexpress.com/article/india/bird-numbers-down-50-peacock-pigeon-up-6273073/

https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/report-shows-population-on-decline-across-bird-species/story-4wBFvOcAXyxmXBkjeDyPmL.html

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