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Aksai chin - Shanmugam IAS academy in coimbatore
Aksai chin


What’s in news?

External Affairs Minister S. Jaishankar reassured China that New Delhi’s decision to exercise greater administrative control over Ladakh would have no implications for India’s external boundaries or the Line of Actual Control with China.

Key data’s:

  • Jaishankar, who is on a crucial three-day visit to China, also called on Chinese Vice President Wang Qishan, considered a confidant of President Xi Jinping.
  • Revoking the Article 370 on Jammu and Kashmir were aimed at better governance and socio-economic development.
  • In this issue, India was not raising any additional territorial claims.
  • Jaishankar’s remarks follow the Chinese Foreign Ministry’s earlier response that India had “continued to damage China’s territorial sovereignty by unilaterally modifying the form of domestic law.”
  • Regarding the boundary question, the two sides had agreed to a fair, reasonable and mutually acceptable settlement based on the 2005 Political Parameters and Guiding Principles.
  • In the negotiations, China had raised the question of Aksai Chin and India’s decision to withdraw special status to Jammu and Kashmir. For this question, External Affairs Minister S. Jaishankar replied that, this was an internal matter and the sole prerogative of the country for India. This won’t impact the Line of Control (LoC) and also the Line of Actual Control where India’s relation is concerned with Pakistan and China.
  • Have agreed on the following political parameters and guiding principles for a boundary settlement;

Article I

The two sides will resolve the boundary question through peaceful and friendly consultations. Neither side shall use or threaten to use force against the other by any means. The final solution of the boundary question will significantly promote good neighbourly and friendly relations between India and China. 

Article II

The two sides should, in accordance with the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, seek a fair, reasonable and mutually acceptable solution to the boundary question through consultations on an equal footing, proceeding from the political perspective of overall bilateral relations. 

Article III

Both sides should, in the spirit of mutual respect and mutual understanding, make meaningful and mutually acceptable adjustments to their respective positions on the boundary question, so as to arrive at a package settlement to the boundary question. The boundary settlement must be final, covering all sectors of the India-China boundary. 

Article IV

The two sides will give due consideration to each other’s strategic and reasonable interests, and the principle of mutual and equal security.

Article V

The two sides will take into account, inter alia, historical evidence, national sentiments, practical difficulties and reasonable concerns and sensitivities of both sides, and the actual state of border areas. 

Article VI 

The boundary should be along well-defined and easily identifiable natural geographical features to be mutually agreed upon between the two sides. 

Article VII

In reaching a boundary settlement, the two sides shall safeguard due interests of their settled populations in the border areas. 

Article VIII

Within the agreed framework of the final boundary settlement, the delineation of the boundary will be carried out utilising means such as modern cartographic and surveying practices and joint surveys. 

Article IX 

Pending an ultimate settlement of the boundary question, the two sides should strictly respect and observe the line of actual control and work together to maintain peace and tranquillity in the border areas. The India-China Joint Working Group and the India-China Diplomatic and Military Expert Group shall continue their work under the Agreements of 7 September 1993 and 29 November 1996, including the clarification of the line of actual control and the implementation of confidence building measures.

Article X

The Special Representatives on the boundary question shall continue their consultations in an earnest manner with the objective of arriving at an agreed framework for a boundary settlement, which will provide the basis for the delineation and demarcation of the India-China boundary to be subsequently undertaken by civil and military officials and surveyors of the two sides. 

Article XI

This Agreement shall come into force as of the date of signature and is subject to amendment and addition by mutual agreement in writing between the two sides. 

  • Signed in duplicate in New Delhi on 11 April, 2005, in the Hindi, Chinese and English languages, all three texts being equally authentic. In case of divergence, the English text shall prevail. 


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