GLOBAL TOBACCO USE TRENDS
What’s in news?
- The World Health Organization, released its report on Global Tobacco use trends.
- According to the report, number of males using tobacco has declined globally for the first time. The report says that the anti-smoking campaigns all over the world is the main reason for the number of tobacco users to reduce.
- During nearly the past two decades, overall global tobacco use has fallen, from 1.397 billion in 2000 to 1.337bn in 2018, or by approximately 60 million people.
- The report says despite the reduction in numbers, the global target set by governments to reduce the use of tobacco by 30% by 2025 remains off track. So far only 32 countries are on track to reach the target.
- Around 43 million children (of age 13-15) are using tobacco in 2018. The number of women using tobacco was 244 million. Of all the regions of the world, South East Asian region has the highest use of tobacco. The only region on track to achieve the target is the Americas.
- According to the report, India is off track to achieve the target of 30% reduction by 2025 as compared to 2010 level. Along with India 163 countries are off the track.
- However, the consumption rate in India is going down by 21.6% as compared to 2010. The current users of smokeless form of tobacco in India is estimated to be 257,020,000.
Tobacco control policies in India:
- The Government enacted the Cigarettes Act (Regulation of Production, Supply and Distribution) in 1975.
- Tobacco smoking was prohibited in all health care establishments, educational institutions, domestic flights, air-conditioned coaches in trains, suburban trains and air-conditioned buses, through a Memorandum issued by the Cabinet Secretariat in 1990.
- Under the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act (PFA) (Amendment) 1990, statutory warnings regarding harmful health effects were made mandatory for paan masala and chewing tobacco.
- The Cable Television Networks (Amendment) Act 2000 prohibited tobacco advertising in state controlled electronic media and publications including cable television.
- The Government enacted the Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act (COTPA), in 2003.
- The provisions under the act included prohibition of smoking in public places, prohibition of advertisements of tobacco products, prohibition on sale of tobacco products to and by minors (persons below 18 years), ban on sale of tobacco products within 100 yards of all educational institutions and mandatory display of pictorial health warnings on tobacco products packages.
- In 2004, the Government ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), which enlists key strategies for reduction in demand and reduction in supply of tobacco.
- Some of the demand reduction strategies include price and tax measures and non-price measures (statutory warnings, comprehensive ban on advertisements, promotion and sponsorship, tobacco product regulation etc).
- The supply reduction strategies include combating illicit trade, providing alternative livelihood to tobacco farmers and workers and regulating sale to and by minors.
- Government of the India piloted National Tobacco Control Programme (NTCP) in 2007-2008.
- The main components of the NTCP were:
- Public awareness/mass media campaigns for awareness building and behavior change.
- Establishment of tobacco product testing laboratories, to build regulatory capacity, as mandated under COTPA, 2003.
- Mainstreaming the program components as part of the health care delivery mechanism under the National Rural Health Mission framework.
- Mainstream Research and Training on alternate crops and livelihoods in collaboration with other nodal Ministries.
- Monitoring and Evaluation including surveillance e.g. Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) India.
- Tobacco control cells with dedicated manpower for effective implementation and monitoring of anti-tobacco laws and initiatives.
- Training of health and social workers, SHGs, NGOs, school teachers etc.
- Local IEC activities.
- Setting up tobacco cessation facilities.
- School Programme.
- Monitoring tobacco control laws.
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