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What’s in news?

A Report, namely “State of Global Air’19” indicates that India and China are collectively accounted for more than 50% of global deaths due to air pollution.

Key data’s:

  • US based institutes Health Effects Institute (HEI) and Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) recently released a detailed report on quality of the global, which found India & China have contributed 50% of 5mn deaths due to air pollution.
  • And also the study found, exposure to PM 2.5 pollution was found to be the third leading risk factor globally for Type 2 diabetes

Key findings of the study:

  • The report inciting few reasons for release of PM2.5. Those reasons include
    • Household burning of solid fuels,
    • Dust from construction, roads, and other activities.
    • Industrial and power plant burning of coal.
    • Brick production.
    • Transportation.
    • Diesel-powered equipment.
  • The major sourec in China for the emission of PM2.5 is,
    • Industrial and power plant burning of coal and other fuels.
    • Transportation.
    • Household burning of biomass.
    • Open burning of agricultural fields.
    • Household burning of coal for cooking and heating.
  • 62% of India’s population and 32% of China’s population were exposed to Household air pollution in 2017.
  • There is inverse relationship between a country’s level of social and economic development and the PM2.5 exposures experienced by its population. The less developed country is exposing 4-5 times more than the developed country.
  • In 2017, annual PM2.5 exposures were highest in South Asia (Nepal, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan). Even Bhutan’s exposure level was the lowest in the region but was still above WHO’s first interim target.
  • A great concern on climate change is the Ozone pollution, which is still a continuing challenge in more developed countries and is increasing in less developed areas, posing new air quality concerns.
  • For the first time, in this report an indicator life expectancy/ how long people live was added. Because of this air pollution life expectancy was reduced by 1 year and 8 months on average worldwide. This means on average child born today will die 20 months sooner.
  • Pakistan, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Nigeria, the United States, Russia, Brazil and the Philippines were the others in the list of 10 countries with the highest mortality rates attributed to air pollution.
  • In March, a report by Swiss-based Company IQ Air Visual and non-profit organisation Greenpeace said Delhi was the most polluted capital in the world.

India’s steps taken towards reducing air pollution:

  • Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY): A scheme to shift the households from biomass fuel to LPG. Under this scheme, LPG connections provided to 35 million poor families free of charge between 2016 and early 2018 and aims to provide 80 million connections by 2020.
  • National Clean Air Program (NCAP): The Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC) recently launched this scheme to fight against the air pollution. This decision was taken from the World Sustainable development Summit, held in New Delhi, last month.
  • FAME: The Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) Electric Vehicles (FAME) India was launched in 2015 under National Electric Mobility Mission (NEMM). It aims at promoting eco-friendly vehicles in the country. The scheme is being administered by the Heavy Industries Ministry.

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